perRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623119127articleInformation Bottleneck and its Applications in Deep LearningHassan Hafez Kolahihafez@ce.sharif.edu1Shohreh Kasaeikasaei@sharif.edu2Sharif University of TechnologySharif UniversityInformation Theory (IT) has been used in Machine Learning (ML) from early days of this field. In the last decade, advances in Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) have led to surprising improvements in many applications of ML. The result has been a paradigm shift in the community toward revisiting previous ideas and applications in this new framework. Ideas from IT are no exception. One of the ideas which is being revisited by many researchers in this new era, is Information Bottleneck (IB); a formulation of information extraction based on IT. The IB is promising in both analyzing and improving DNNs. The goal of this survey is to review the IB concept and demonstrate its applications in deep learning. The information theoretic nature of IB, makes it also a good candidate in showing the more general concept of how IT can be used in ML. Two important concepts are highlighted in this narrative on the subject, i) the concise and universal view that IT provides on seemingly unrelated methods of ML, demonstrated by explaining how IB relates to minimal sufficient statistics, stochastic gradient descent, and variational auto-encoders, and ii) the common technical mistakes and problems caused by applying ideas from IT, which is discussed by a careful study of some recent methods suffering from them.http://jist.ir/Article/15113Machine Learning Information Theory Information Bottleneck Deep Learning Variational Auto-Encoder.perRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623128135articleImprovement in Accuracy and Speed of Image Semantic Segmentation via Convolution Neural Network Encoder-DecoderHanieh Zamanianhanieh.zamanian@birjand.ac.ir1Hassan Farsihfarsi@birjand.ac.ir2Sajad Mohammadzadehs.mohamadzadeh@birjand.ac.ir3University of BirjandBirjand UniversityUniversity of BirjandRecent researches on pixel-wise semantic segmentation use deep neural networks to improve accuracy and speed of these networks in order to increase the efficiency in practical applications such as automatic driving. These approaches have used deep architecture to predict pixel tags, but the obtained results seem to be undesirable. The reason for these unacceptable results is mainly due to the existence of max pooling operators, which reduces the resolution of the feature maps. In this paper, we present a convolutional neural network composed of encoder-decoder segments based on successful SegNet network. The encoder section has a depth of 2, which in the first part has 5 convolutional layers, in which each layer has 64 filters with dimensions of 3×3. In the decoding section, the dimensions of the decoding filters are adjusted according to the convolutions used at each step of the encoding. So, at each step, 64 filters with the size of 3×3 are used for coding where the weights of these filters are adjusted by network training and adapted to the educational data. Due to having the low depth of 2, and the low number of parameters in proposed network, the speed and the accuracy improve compared to the popular networks such as SegNet and DeepLab. For the CamVid dataset, after a total of 60,000 iterations, we obtain the 91% for global accuracy, which indicates improvements in the efficiency of proposed method.http://jist.ir/Article/15156semantic segmentationconvolutional neural networksencoder –decoderPixelwise Semantic InterpretationperRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623136149articleHandwritten Digits Recognition Using an Ensemble Technique Based on the Firefly AlgorithmAzar Mahmoodzadehmahmoodzadeh@iaushiraz.ac.ir1Hamed Agahiagahi@iaushiraz.ac.ir2Marzieh Salehi m.artista09@yahoo.com3Islamic Azad University ShirazIslamic Azad University Shiraz Islamic Azad University,Shiraz Branch, Iran This paper develops a multi-step procedure for classifying Farsi handwritten digits using a combination of classifiers. Generally, the technique relies on extracting a set of characteristics from handwritten samples, training multiple classifiers to learn to discriminate between digits, and finally combining the classifiers to enhance the overall system performance. First, a pre-processing course is performed to prepare the images for the main steps. Then three structural and statistical characteristics are extracted which include several features, among which a multi-objective genetic algorithm selects those more effective ones in order to reduce the computational complexity of the classification step. For the base classification, a decision tree (DT), an artificial neural networks (ANN) and a k-nearest neighbor (KNN) models are employed. Finally, the outcomes of the classifiers are fed into a classifier ensemble system to make the final decision. This hybrid system assigns different weights for each class selected by each classifier. These voting weights are adjusted by a metaheuristic firefly algorithm which optimizes the accuracy of the overall system. The performance of the implemented approach on the standard HODA dataset is compared with the base classifiers and some state-of-the-art methods. Evaluation of the proposed technique demonstrates that the proposed hybrid system attains high performance indices including accuracy of 98.88% with only eleven features.http://jist.ir/Article/15183Optical character recognition feature selection multi-objective genetic algorithm classifiers ensemble evolutionary firefly algorithmperRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623150158articleThe Influence of ERP Usage on Organizational Learning: An Empirical InvestigationFaisal Aburubfaburub@uop.edu.jo1University of PetraA number of different hotels have been seen to direct significant investment towards Enterprise Recourse Planning (ERP) systems with the aim of securing sound levels of organizational learning. As a strategic instrument, organizational learning has been recommended in the modern management arena as potentially able to achieve a competitive edge and as stabilizing the success of businesses. Learning, as an aim, is not only able to improve the skillset and knowledge of employees, but also achieving organizational growth and development, whilst also helping to build a dynamic learning organization. Organizational learning is especially important in modern-day firms, when staff might choose to leave or change their role owing to the view that knowledge-sharing could be detrimental to their own success. The present work seeks to examine the impact of ERP usage on organizational learning. A new research model has been presented, this model has been empirically investigated in the Jordanian hotel industry. 350 questionnaires were distributed across a total of 350 hotels. 317 questionnaires were returned. Structural equation modeling (AMOS 18) was used to analyze the data. The findings from the empirical findings emphasize that ERP usage has significant impact on organizational learning. In line with the study findings, various aspects of organizational learning, such as continuous learning, system perspective, openness and experimentation and transfer and integration are recognized as able to best encourage the use of ERP. Suggestions for future work and discussion on research limitations are also discussed.http://jist.ir/Article/15142ERP UsageOrganizational LearningOrganizational PerformanceperRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623159168articlePolar Split Tree as a Search Tool in TelecommunicationFarzad Bayatstd_farzadbayat@khu.ac.ir1Zahra Nilforoushanshadi.nilforoushan@gmail.com2Kharazmi UniversityKharazmi UniversityTree search algorithms are vital for the search methods in structured data. Such algorithms deal with nodes which can be taken from a data structure. One famous tree data structure is split tree. In this paper, to compute the split tree in polar coordinates, a method has been introduced. Assuming that the algorithm inputs (in form of points) have been distributed in the form of a circle or part of a circle, polar split tree can be used. For instance, we can use these types of trees to transmit radio and telecommunication waves from host stations to the receivers and to search the receivers. Since we are dealing with data points that are approximately circular distributed, it is suggested to use polar coordinates. Furthermore, there are several researches by search algorithms for the central anchor which leads to the assignment of a virtual polar coordinate system. In this paper, the structure of Cartesian split tree will be explained and the polar split tree will be implemented. Then, by doing nearest neighbor search experiments, we will compare the polar split tree and polar quad tree in terms of searching time and amount of distance to the closest neighbor and in the end, better results will be achieved.http://jist.ir/Article/15150split treepolar split treequad treepolar quad treenearest neighbor searchperRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623169179articleA Multi-objective Multi-agent Optimization Algorithm for the Community Detection ProblemAmirhossein Hosseinianah_hosseinian@iau-tnb.ac.ir1Vahid Baradaranv_baradaran@iau-tnb.ac.ir2Islamic Azad University, Tehran North BranchIslamic Azad, Tehran Shomal UniversityThis paper addresses the community detection problem as one of the significant problems in the field of social network analysis. The goal of the community detection problem is to find sub-graphs of a network where they have high density of within-group connections, while they have a lower density of between-group connections. Due to high practical usage of community detection in scientific fields, many researchers developed different algorithms to meet various scientific requirements. However, single-objective optimization algorithms may fail to detect high quality communities of complex networks. In this paper, a novel multi-objective Multi-agent Optimization Algorithm, named the MAOA is proposed to detect communities of complex networks. The MAOA aims to optimize modularity and community score as objective functions, simultaneously. In the proposed algorithm, each feasible solution is considered as an agent and the MAOA organizes agents in multiple groups. The MAOA uses new search operators based on social, autonomous and self-learning behaviors of agents. Moreover, the MAOA uses the weighted sum method (WSM) in finding the global best agent and leader agent of each group. The Pareto solutions obtained by the MAOA is evaluated in terms of several performance measures. The results of the proposed method are compared with the outputs of three meta-heuristics. Experiments results based on five real-world networks show that the MAOA is more efficient in finding better communities than other methods.http://jist.ir/Article/15158Community detection problem Complex networks Multi-agent systems Social networksperRICESTJournal of Information Systems and Telecommunication (JIST) 2322-14372345-27732019-10623180192articleSecurity Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Hybrid Efficient Encryption Algorithm ApproachOmid Mahdi Ebadatiomidit@gmail.com1Farshad Eshghifarshade@khu.ac.ir2Amin Zamaniamin.zamani.cert@khu.ac.ir3Kharazmi UniversityKharazmi UniversityKharazmi UniversityWireless sensor networks are new technologies that are used for various purposes such as environmental monitoring, home security, industrial process monitoring, healthcare programs and etc. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various attacks. Cryptography is one of the methods for secure transmission of information between sensors in wireless sensor networks. A complete and secure encryption system must establish three principles of confidentiality, authentication and integrity. An encryption algorithm alone cannot provide all the principles of encryption. A hybrid encryption algorithm, consisting of symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms, provides complete security for a cryptographic system. The papers presented in this area over the last few years, and a new secure algorithm present with regard to the limitations of wireless sensor networks, which establishes three principles of cryptography. The details of the algorithm and basic concepts are presented in such a way that the algorithm can be operational and showed a very high efficiency in compare to the current proposed methods.http://jist.ir/Article/15082Wireless sensor networkCryptography algorithmHybrid cryptographyConfidentialityIntegrationAuthentication