• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Pose-Invariant Eye Gaze Estimation Using Geometrical Features of Iris and Pupil Images
        Mohammad Reza Mohammadi Abolghasem Asadollah Raie
        In the cases of severe paralysis in which the ability to control the body movements of a person is limited to the muscles around the eyes, eye movements or blinks are the only way for the person to communicate. Interfaces that assist in such communications often require Full Text
        In the cases of severe paralysis in which the ability to control the body movements of a person is limited to the muscles around the eyes, eye movements or blinks are the only way for the person to communicate. Interfaces that assist in such communications often require special hardware or reliance on active infrared illumination. In this paper, we propose a non-intrusive algorithm for eye gaze estimation that works with video input from an inexpensive camera and without special lighting. The main contribution of this paper is proposing a new geometrical model for eye region that only requires the image of one iris for gaze estimation. Essential parameters for this system are the best fitted ellipse of the iris and the pupil center. The algorithms used for both iris ellipse fitting and pupil center localization pose no pre-assumptions on the head pose. All in all, the achievement of this paper is the robustness of the proposed system to the head pose variations. The performance of the method has been evaluated on both synthetic and real images leading to errors of 2.12 and 3.48 degrees, respectively. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Cyclic Correlation-Based Cooperative Detection for OFDM-Based Primary Users
        Hamed Sadeghi paeez azmi
        This paper develops a new robust cyclostationary detection technique for spectrum sensing of OFDM-based primary users (PUs). To do so, an asymptotically constant false alarm rate (CFAR) multi-cycle detector is proposed and its statistical behavior under null hypothesis Full Text
        This paper develops a new robust cyclostationary detection technique for spectrum sensing of OFDM-based primary users (PUs). To do so, an asymptotically constant false alarm rate (CFAR) multi-cycle detector is proposed and its statistical behavior under null hypothesis is investigated. Furthermore, to achieve higher detection capability, a soft decision fusion rule for performing cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) in secondary networks is established. The proposed CSS scheme aims to maximize the deflection criterion at the fusion center (FC), while the reporting channels are under Rayleigh fading. In order to be able to evaluate the performance of the cooperative detector, some analytic threshold approximation methods are provided for the cases where the FC has direct sensing capability or not. Through numerical simulations, the proposed local and CSS schemes are shown to significantly enhance CR network performance in terms of detection probability metric. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - A New Cooperative Approach for Cognitive Radio Networks with Correlated Wireless Channels
        Mehdi  Ghamari Adian Hassan Aghaeenia
        An effective cooperative cognitive radio system is proposed, when the wireless channels are highly correlated. The system model consists of two multi-antenna secondary users (SU TX and SU RX), constituting the desired link and some single-antenna primary and secondary u Full Text
        An effective cooperative cognitive radio system is proposed, when the wireless channels are highly correlated. The system model consists of two multi-antenna secondary users (SU TX and SU RX), constituting the desired link and some single-antenna primary and secondary users. The objective is the maximization of the data rates of the desired SU link subject to the interference constraints on the primary users. An effective system, exploiting Transmit Beamforming (TB) at SU TX, cooperation of some single-antenna SUs and Cooperative Beamforming (CB) at them and the antenna selection at SU RX to reduce the costs associated with RF-chains at the radio front end at SU RX, is proposed. Due to the issue of MIMO channels with correlated fading, some problems arise such as inapplicability of the well-known Grassmanian Beamforming as TB scheme at SU TX. We then propose a method to overcome this problem. After formulating the problem, a novel iterative scheme is proposed to find the best TB weight vector in SU TX and best subset of antennas at SU RX, considering the correlated channel. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Optimal Sensor Scheduling Algorithms for Distributed Sensor Networks
        Behrooz Safarinejadian Abdolah Rahimi
        In this paper, a sensor network is used to estimate the dynamic states of a system. At each time step, one (or multiple) sensors are available that can send its measured data to a central node, in which all of processing is done. We want to provide an optimal algorithm Full Text
        In this paper, a sensor network is used to estimate the dynamic states of a system. At each time step, one (or multiple) sensors are available that can send its measured data to a central node, in which all of processing is done. We want to provide an optimal algorithm for scheduling sensor selection at every time step. Our goal is to select the appropriate sensor to reduce computations, optimize the energy consumption and enhance the network lifetime. To achieve this goal, we must reduce the error covariance. Three algorithms are used in this work: sliding window, thresholding and randomly chosen algorithms. Moreover, we will offer a new algorithm based on circular selection. Finally, a novel algorithm for selecting multiple sensors is proposed. Performance of the proposed algorithms is illustrated with numerical examples. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Theory and Experiment of Parasitic Element Effects on Spherical Probe-Fed Antenna
        Javad Soleiman Meiguni Manouchehr Kamyab Ahmad Hosseinbeig
        Theory and experiment of a spherical probe-fed conformal antenna with a parasitic element mounted on a spherical multilayer structure are presented in this paper. Rigorous mathematical Method of Moments (MoMs) for analyzing various radiating spherical structures is pres Full Text
        Theory and experiment of a spherical probe-fed conformal antenna with a parasitic element mounted on a spherical multilayer structure are presented in this paper. Rigorous mathematical Method of Moments (MoMs) for analyzing various radiating spherical structures is presented in this paper by using Dyadic Green's Functions (DGFs) in conjunction with Mixed Potential Integral Equation (MPIE) formulation. Linear Rao-Wilton-Glisson (RWG) triangular basis functions are applied in MPIE formulation. Current distributions on coaxial probe and conformal radiating elements are computed by using spatial domain Dyadic Green's Function (DGF) and its asymptotic approximation. A prototype of such an antenna is fabricated and tested. The effect of the parasitic element on the input impedance and radiation patterns of the antenna is investigated. It is shown that the antenna characteristics are improved significantly with the presence of the conducting parasitic element. Good agreement is achieved between the results obtained from the proposed methods and the measurement results. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Ten Steps for Software Quality Rating Considering ISO/IEC
        Hassan Alizadeh Bahram Sadeghi Bigham Hossein Afsari
        In software rating area, it is necessary to apply a measurement reference model to evaluate the quality of software. The standard 25030 is an example of an evaluation system which is based on stakeholders' requirements. In this study, an attempt has been made to establi Full Text
        In software rating area, it is necessary to apply a measurement reference model to evaluate the quality of software. The standard 25030 is an example of an evaluation system which is based on stakeholders' requirements. In this study, an attempt has been made to establish a model in which all implicit and explicit requirements of stakeholders, users and policy makers have been taken into account. In addition, AHP method has been followed to weigh the indicators used in the model. The results show applicability of the model to meet the requirements of Iranian users. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        7 - A New Method for Detecting the Number of Coherent Sources in the Presence of Colored Noise
        Shahriar Shirvani Moghaddam Somaye  Jalaei
        In this paper, a new method for determining the number of coherent/correlated signals in the presence of colored noise is proposed which is based on the Eigen Increment Threshold (EIT) method. First, we present a new approach which combines EIT criterion and eigenvalue Full Text
        In this paper, a new method for determining the number of coherent/correlated signals in the presence of colored noise is proposed which is based on the Eigen Increment Threshold (EIT) method. First, we present a new approach which combines EIT criterion and eigenvalue correction. The simulation results show that the new method estimates the number of noncoherent signals in the presence of colored noise with higher detection probability respect to MDL, AIC, EGM and conventional EIT. In addition, to apply the proposed EIT algorithm to detect the number of sources in the case of coherent and/or correlated sources, a spatial smoothing preprocessing is added. In this case, simulation results show 100% detection probability for signal to noise ratios greater than -5dB. Final version of the proposed EIT-based method is a simple and efficient way to increase the detection probability of EIT method in the presence of colored noise considering either coherent/correlated or noncoherent sources. Manuscript Document