• List of Articles


      • Open Access Article

        1 - Measurement and Analysis of Radiation Levels from Base Transceiver Station in Sambas
        Fitri Imansyah Leonardus Sandy Ade Putra Eka  Kusumawardhani
        The development of telecommunications in Indonesia until now has experienced a very significant increase and has become a significant need in communication. Many people use communication tools daily, causing many providers to set up Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) to re Full Text
        The development of telecommunications in Indonesia until now has experienced a very significant increase and has become a significant need in communication. Many people use communication tools daily, causing many providers to set up Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) to reach their users to remote areas. BTS has a transmit power that can reach the destination area, but most people still do not know the level of radiation emitted and the health effects on the body. Therefore the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has set a threshold level of safe radiation for the human body. Sambas is one of the cities in West Kalimantan which is the target for the development of BTS establishments by operators. This makes the surrounding community feel afraid of the health caused by radiation from the BTS. So it is necessary to do some research, socialize, measuring, and evaluate the level of radiation emitted from BTS, especially in residential areas. The research was conducted through several stages, including; data collection, data collection methods on variations in distance from BTS, results of radiation level measurements, and comparisons to the safe threshold value for radiation intensity that has been set by ICNIRP. The measurement results from 20 BTS in Sambas show that the radiation level from the BTS measured is still far from the safe radiation threshold that has been set by ICNIRP. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Analytical Model to Create Proxy Server Sessions in Multimedia Networks
        Mehdi Khazaei
        One of the most popular and widely applied protocols on multimedia networks is the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to create, modify, and terminate the sessions. SIP is the platform of Next Generation Networks (NGN). In this way, SIP should be able to respond to the n Full Text
        One of the most popular and widely applied protocols on multimedia networks is the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) to create, modify, and terminate the sessions. SIP is the platform of Next Generation Networks (NGN). In this way, SIP should be able to respond to the needs of such a largely-used network. One of the major problems in SIP networks is overload. This challenge creates a sharp drop in quality of service for NGN users. In this regard, many studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of this protocol, especially under overload. A new analytical model is developed that prioritizes the SIP message processing. An analytical approach is proposed based on the Mean Value Analysis (MVA) algorithm in queue theory. Considering some appropriate assumptions customizing MVA as to implement this proposed model and to cope with the limitations of the MVA is highly essential. The output of the analytical model is compared with the standard SIP model obtained from the simulator and the results confirm that prioritizing original messages would enhance the SIP performance at different load conditions. Prioritization of original messages is advantageous, and outperforms the normal SIP. Nevertheless, prioritizing the repeated messages not only has no advantage, but also its performance is less than the normal SIP. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        3 - SQP-based Power Allocation Strategy for Target Tracking in MIMO Radar Network with Widely Separated Antennas
        Mohammad  Akhondi Darzikolaei Mohammad Reza Karami-Mollaei Maryam Najimi
        MIMO radar with widely separated antennas enhances detection and estimation resolution by utilizing the diversity of the propagation path. Each antenna of this type of radar can steer its beam independently towards any direction as an independent transmitter. However, t Full Text
        MIMO radar with widely separated antennas enhances detection and estimation resolution by utilizing the diversity of the propagation path. Each antenna of this type of radar can steer its beam independently towards any direction as an independent transmitter. However, the joint processing of signals for transmission and reception differs this radar from the multistatic radar. There are many resource optimization problems which improve the performance of MIMO radar. But power allocation is one of the most interesting resource optimization problems. The power allocation finds an optimum strategy to assign power to transmit antennas with the aim of minimizing the target tracking errors under specified transmit power constraints. In this study, the performance of power allocation for target tracking in MIMO radar with widely separated antennas is investigated. Therefore, a MIMO radar with distributed antennas is configured and a target motion model using the constant velocity (CV) method is modeled. Then Joint Cramer Rao bound (CRB) for target parameters (joint target position and velocity) estimation error is calculated. This is utilized as a power allocation problem objective function. Since the proposed power allocation problem is nonconvex. Therefore, a SQP-based power allocation algorithm is proposed to solve it. In simulation results, the performance of the proposed algorithm in various conditions such as a different number of antennas and antenna geometry configurations is examined. Results affirm the accuracy of the proposed algorithm. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Reliability Analysis of the Joint LDPC Decoding Algorithms over the Multiple Access Channels
        Mahdi Nangir
        The joint Low Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoding schemes iteratively decode the received data from multiple channels. Mostly, the available data in different channels are correlated and there is kind of dependency between the links or channels. In recent decades, the Full Text
        The joint Low Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoding schemes iteratively decode the received data from multiple channels. Mostly, the available data in different channels are correlated and there is kind of dependency between the links or channels. In recent decades, the graph-based codes have been considered for the communication network scenarios. The performance of these codes is close to the existing theoretical bounds and their complexity is not high which cause the possibility of real world implementation and exploitation. The Multiple Access Channel (MAC) scenario with multiple senders which aim to send correlated data to a single receiver is considered. An analysis on the reliability of the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the Joint Sum-Product (JSP) decoding algorithm is presented for a two-link case, which can be extended to higher number of links. The effect of parameter variations on the BER performance is studied. These parameters include: the total number of iterations, the codeword length, the total number of rounds, and the coding rate in the JSP algorithm. An optimal value of the parameters is selected during the design procedure of a communication network by considering its limitations and complexity criterion. The JSP algorithm is a reliable scheme for jointly decoding of noisy binary data from different origins. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Remote Sensing Image Registration based on a Geometrical Model Matching
        Zahra Hossein-Nejad Hamed Agahi Azar Mahmoodzadeh
        Remote sensing image registration is the method of aligning two images from the same scene taken under different imaging circumstances containing different times, angles, or sensors. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is one of the most common matching methods pre Full Text
        Remote sensing image registration is the method of aligning two images from the same scene taken under different imaging circumstances containing different times, angles, or sensors. Scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) is one of the most common matching methods previously used in the remote sensing image registration. The defects of SIFT are the large number of mismatches and high execution time due to the high dimensions of classical SIFT descriptor. These drawbacks reduce the efficiency of the SIFT algorithm. To enhance the performance of the remote sensing image registration, this paper proposes an approach consisting of three different steps. At first, the keypoints of both reference and second images are extracted using SIFT algorithm. Then, to increase the speed of the algorithm and accuracy of the matching, the SIFT descriptor with the vector length of 64 is used for keypoints description. Finally, a new method has been proposed for the image matching. The proposed matching method is based on calculating the distances of keypoints and their transformed points. Simulation results of applying the proposed method to some standard databases demonstrated the superiority of this approach compared with some other existing methods, according to the root mean square error (RMSE), precision and running time criteria. Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Error Reconciliation based on Integer Linear Programming in Quantum Key Distribution
        zahra eskandari mohammad  rezaee
        Quantum telecommunication has received a lot of attention today by providing unconditional security because of the inherent nature of quantum channels based on the no-cloning theorem. In this mode of communication, first, the key is sent through a quantum channel that i Full Text
        Quantum telecommunication has received a lot of attention today by providing unconditional security because of the inherent nature of quantum channels based on the no-cloning theorem. In this mode of communication, first, the key is sent through a quantum channel that is resistant to eavesdropping, and then secure communication is established using the exchanged key. Due to the inevitability of noise, the received key needs to be distilled. One of the vital steps in key distillation is named key reconciliation which corrects the occurred errors in the key. Different solutions have been presented for this issue, with different efficiency and success rate. One of the most notable works is LDPC decoding which has higher efficiency compared to the others, but unfortunately, this method does not work well in the codes with a high rate. In this paper, we present an approach to correct the errors in the high rate LDPC code-based reconciliation algorithm. The proposed algorithm utilizes Integer Linear Programming to model the error correction problem to an optimization problem and solve it. Testing the proposed approach through simulation, we show it has high efficiency in high rate LDPC codes as well as a higher success rate compared with the LDPC decoding method - belief propagation – in a reasonable time. Manuscript Document