List of subject articles Wireless Network


    • Open Access Article

      1 - A Unicast Tree-Based Data Gathering Protocol for Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks
      Zeynab Mottaginia Ali Ghaffari
      The Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) distinguish themselves from conventional sensor networks by means of some features such as loose connectivity, node mobility, and delay tolerability. It needs to be acknowledged that traditional end-to-end routing proto Full Text
      The Delay Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks (DTMSNs) distinguish themselves from conventional sensor networks by means of some features such as loose connectivity, node mobility, and delay tolerability. It needs to be acknowledged that traditional end-to-end routing protocols cannot be applied usefully in such challenging network conditions because of intermittent connections and/or long delays. Hence, this research is intended to propose a Unicast Tree-based Data Gathering protocol (UTDG) to resolve this problem. A UTDG includes 3 phases: tree formation phase, data collection and data transmission phase, and finally the updating phase. The proposed protocol constructs a tree in each community on the basis of transmission ranking, contact probability and the link expiration time. The selection of the next-hop node is based on the tree structure rather than forwarding the message to the neighbor node directly. Each node unicasts the data to its parent in the related community, and the root of the tree successively sends the data to the sink node. The authors contend, based on the simulation results of the study, that the proposed protocol can gain significantly higher message delivery rates with lower transmission overhead and also lower delay in data delivery than the other existing DTMSNs routing protocols in some applications. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      2 - Coverage Improving with Energy Efficient in Wireless Sensor Networks
      Amir Pakmehr Ali Ghaffari
      Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by numerous sensors nodes that are able to sense different environmental phenomena and to transfer the collected data to the sink. The coverage of a network is one of the main discussion and one of the parameters of service qua Full Text
      Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by numerous sensors nodes that are able to sense different environmental phenomena and to transfer the collected data to the sink. The coverage of a network is one of the main discussion and one of the parameters of service quality in WSNs. In most of the applications, the sensor nodes are scattered in the environment randomly that causes the density of the nodes to be high in some regions and low in some other regions. In this case, some regions are not covered with any nodes of the network that are called covering holes. Moreover, creating some regions with high density causes extra overlapping and consequently the consumption of energy increases in the network and life of the network decreases. The proposed approach causes an increase in life of the network and an increase in it through careful selection of the most appropriate approach as cluster head node and form clusters with a maximum length of two steps and selecting some nodes as redundancy nodes in order to cover the created holes in the network. The proposed scheme is simulated using MATLAB software. The function of the suggested approach will be compared with Learning Automata based Energy Efficient Coverage protocol (LAEEC) approach either. Simulation results shows that the function of the suggested approach is better than LAEEC considering the parameters such as average of the active nodes, average remaining energy in nodes, percent of network coverage and number of control packets. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      3 - Data Aggregation Tree Structure in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm
      Elham Mohsenifard بهنام طالبی
      Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of numerous tiny sensors which can be regarded as a robust tool for collecting and aggregating data in different data environments. The energy of these small sensors is supplied by a battery with limited power which cannot be rech Full Text
      Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of numerous tiny sensors which can be regarded as a robust tool for collecting and aggregating data in different data environments. The energy of these small sensors is supplied by a battery with limited power which cannot be recharged. Certain approaches are needed so that the power of the sensors can be efficiently and optimally utilized. One of the notable approaches for reducing energy consumption in WSNs is to decrease the number of packets to be transmitted in the network. Using data aggregation method, the mass of data which should be transmitted can be remarkably reduced. One of the related methods in this approach is the data aggregation tree. However, it should be noted that finding the optimization tree for data aggregation in networks with one working-station is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, using cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA), a data aggregation tree was proposed which can optimize energy consumption in the network. The proposed method in this study was compared with genetic algorithm (GA), Power Efficient Data gathering and Aggregation Protocol- Power Aware (PEDAPPA) and energy efficient spanning tree (EESR). The results of simulations which were conducted in matlab indicated that the proposed method had better performance than GA, PEDAPPA and EESR algorithm in terms of energy consumption. Consequently, the proposed method was able to enhance network lifetime. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      4 - Crisis management using spatial query processing in wireless sensor networks
      mohammad shakeri seyyed majid mazinani
      Natural disasters are an inevitable part of the world that we inhabit. Human casualties and financial losses are concomitants of these natural disasters. However, by an efficient crisis management program, we can minimize their physical and social damages. The real chal Full Text
      Natural disasters are an inevitable part of the world that we inhabit. Human casualties and financial losses are concomitants of these natural disasters. However, by an efficient crisis management program, we can minimize their physical and social damages. The real challenge in crisis management is the inability to timely receive the information from the stricken areas. Technology has come to the aid of crisis management programs to help find an answer to the problem. One of these technologies is wireless sensor network. With recent advances in this field, sensor nodes can independently respond to the queries from the users. This has transformed the processing of the queries into one of the most useful chapters in sensor networks. Without requiring any infrastructure, the sensor network can easily be deployed in the stricken area. And with the help of spatial query processing, it can easily provide managers with the latest information. The main problem, however, is the irregular shape of the area. Since these areas require many points to present them, the transmission of the coordinates by sensor nodes necessitates an increase in the number of data packet transmissions in the sensor network. The high number of packets considerably increases energy consumption. In related previous works, to solve this problem, line simplification algorithm s, such as Ramer-Douglas-Peucker (RDP), were used. These algorithms could lessen energy consumption by reducing the number of points in the shape of the area. In this article, we present a new algorithm to simplify packet shapes which can reduce more points with more accuracy. This results in decreasing the number of transmitted packets in the network, the concomitant reduction of energy consumption, and, finally, increasing network lifetime. Our proposed method was implemented in different scenarios and could on average reduce network’s energy consumption by 72.3%, while it caused only 4.5% carelessness which, when compared to previous methods, showed a far better performance. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      5 - A New Node Density Based k-edge Connected Topology Control Method: A Desirable QoS Tolerance Approach
      Mohsen Heydarian
      This research is an ongoing work for achieving consistency between topology control and QoS guarantee in MANET. Desirable topology and Quality of Service (QoS) control are two important challenges in wireless communication networks such as MANETs.In a Mobile Ad hoc Netw Full Text
      This research is an ongoing work for achieving consistency between topology control and QoS guarantee in MANET. Desirable topology and Quality of Service (QoS) control are two important challenges in wireless communication networks such as MANETs.In a Mobile Ad hoc Network, MANET, nodes move in the network area; therefore, the network topology is randomly and unpredictably changed. If the network topology is not controlled properly, the energy consumption is increased and also network topology probably becomes disconnected. To prevent from this situation, it is necessary to use desirable dynamic topology control algorithms such as k-edge connectivity methods. This papertries to improvethe three following parameters according to the k-edge connectivity concepts: (1) network performance, (2) reduce energy consumption, and (3) maintain the network connectivity. To achieve these goals, as a new method, we enhance k-edge connectivity methods using an improved definition of node density. The new method is called as: Node Density Based k-edge connected Topology Control (NDBkTC) algorithm. For the first time the node density definition is dynamically used. The new method, computes the node density based on a new equation which consists of the following factors: the relative velocity of nodes, distance between nodes, the number of nodes and the transmission range of nodes. The results show that our new method improves the network performance compared with the existing methods. Also we will show that the new method can holds QoS in a desirable tolerance range. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      6 - Lifetime Maximization by Dynamic Threshold and Sensor Selection in Multi-channel Cognitive Sensor Network
      Asma Bagheri Ataollah Ebrahimzadeh maryam najimi
      The tiny and low-cost sensors cannot simultaneously sense more than one channel since they do not have high-speed Analog-to-Digital-Convertors (ADCs) and high-power batteries. It is a critical problem when they are used for multi-channel sensing in cognitive sensor netw Full Text
      The tiny and low-cost sensors cannot simultaneously sense more than one channel since they do not have high-speed Analog-to-Digital-Convertors (ADCs) and high-power batteries. It is a critical problem when they are used for multi-channel sensing in cognitive sensor networks (CSNs). One solution for this problem is that the sensors sense various channels at different sensing periods. Due to the energy limitation in these scenarios, the lifetime maximization will become an important issue. In this paper, maximizing the lifetime of a CSN is investigated by selecting both the cooperative sensors and their detector threshold, such that the desired detection performance constraints are satisfied. This is a NP-complete problem, and obtaining the optimum solution needs exhaustive search with exponential complexity order. Here we have proposed two convex-based optimization algorithms with low order of complexity. First algorithm applies the known instantaneous Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) and obtains the proper detector thresholds by solving an equation for every channel. Investigation the effect of detector thresholds on the energy consumption, the false alarm probability and the detection probability shows that we can minimize the detector thresholds such that the detection constraints are met. In the second algorithm in order to reduce the complexity of the problem it is proposed the Bisection method for determining detector thresholds. Because knowing the instantaneous SNR is difficult, we have investigated the performance of the second algorithm by average value of SNR. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of the network in case of lifetime and energy consumption. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      7 - Clustering for Reduction of Energy Consumption in Wireless Sensor Networks by AHP Method
      Mohammad Reza  Taghva Robab  Hamlbarani Haghi Aziz Hanifi Kamran  feizi
      Due to the type of applications, wireless sensor nodes must always be energy efficient and small. Hence, some studies have been done in order to the reduction in energy consumption. Data collection in wireless sensor networks is one of the most important operations of t Full Text
      Due to the type of applications, wireless sensor nodes must always be energy efficient and small. Hence, some studies have been done in order to the reduction in energy consumption. Data collection in wireless sensor networks is one of the most important operations of these networks. Due to the energy limitation of nodes, energy efficiency is considered as a key objective in the design of sensor networks. In this paper, we present a method in which, in the first phase, nodes obtain their position by using the position of the base station and two other two nodes informed geographic position and are out of covered environment. In the second phase, the optimal location of the base station is determined. In the third phase, we determine the cluster heads based on the criteria such as the remaining energy, the distance (the distance from the cluster head and the distance from the base station), the number of neighbors (the one-step neighbors and the two-step neighbors) and the centrality. Using the multi-as criteria to select optimally cluster heads by decision making method. We implement the proposed method in the NS2 environment and evaluate its effect and compare it with the NEECP E-LEACH protocols. Simulation results show that by reducing energy consumption, the proposed method enhances the network life time expectancy. In addition it improves average packet delivery and the average delay. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      8 - Security Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Networks: A Hybrid Efficient Encryption Algorithm Approach
      امید مهدی عبادتی Farshad Eshghi Amin Zamani
      Wireless sensor networks are new technologies that are used for various purposes such as environmental monitoring, home security, industrial process monitoring, healthcare programs and etc. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various attacks. Cryptography is one Full Text
      Wireless sensor networks are new technologies that are used for various purposes such as environmental monitoring, home security, industrial process monitoring, healthcare programs and etc. Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to various attacks. Cryptography is one of the methods for secure transmission of information between sensors in wireless sensor networks. A complete and secure encryption system must establish three principles of confidentiality, authentication and integrity. An encryption algorithm alone cannot provide all the principles of encryption. A hybrid encryption algorithm, consisting of symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms, provides complete security for a cryptographic system. The papers presented in this area over the last few years, and a new secure algorithm present with regard to the limitations of wireless sensor networks, which establishes three principles of cryptography. The details of the algorithm and basic concepts are presented in such a way that the algorithm can be operational and showed a very high efficiency in compare to the current proposed methods. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      9 - Lifetime Improvement Using Cluster Head Selection and Base Station Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
      maryam najimi Sajjad  Nankhoshki
      The limited energy supply of wireless sensor networks poses a great challenge for the deployment of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a sensor network of nodes with wireless transceiver capabilities and limited energy is considered. Clustering is one of the most eff Full Text
      The limited energy supply of wireless sensor networks poses a great challenge for the deployment of wireless sensor nodes. In this paper, a sensor network of nodes with wireless transceiver capabilities and limited energy is considered. Clustering is one of the most efficient techniques to save more energy in these networks. Therefore, the proper selection of the cluster heads plays important role to save the energy of sensor nodes for data transmission in the network. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient data transmission by determining the proper cluster heads in wireless sensor networks. We also obtain the optimal location of the base station according to the cluster heads to prolong the network lifetime. An efficient method is considered based on particle swarm algorithm (PSO) which is a nature inspired swarm intelligence based algorithm, modelled after observing the choreography of a flock of birds, to solve a sensor network optimization problem. In the proposed energy- efficient algorithm, cluster heads distance from the base station and their residual energy of the sensors nodes are important parameters for cluster head selection and base station localization. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm improves the network lifetime and also more alive sensors are remained in the wireless network compared to the baseline algorithms in different situations. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      10 - An SRN Based Approach for Performance Evaluation of Network Layer in Mobile Ad hoc Networks
      meisam Yadollahzadeh tabari Ali A Pouyan
      The application of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) in emergency and critical cases needs a precise and formal performance evaluation of these networks. Traditional simulation-based performance evaluators like NS-2 and OPNET usually need a considerable time for producing Full Text
      The application of mobile ad hoc networks (MANET) in emergency and critical cases needs a precise and formal performance evaluation of these networks. Traditional simulation-based performance evaluators like NS-2 and OPNET usually need a considerable time for producing high level performance metrics. Also there is no theoretical background for mentioned simulators, too. In this research, we propose a framework for performance evaluation of mobile ad hoc networks. The presented framework points to the network layer of MANETs using SRN (Stochastic Reward Nets) modeling tool as variation of generalized stochastic Petri net (GSPN). Based on decomposition technique it encompasses two separate models: one for analysis of data flowing process and the other for modeling routing process ; supposing AODV as a routing protocol that is worked out. To verify the presented model, an equivalence-based method is applied. The proposed SRN model has been quantified by deriving two performances metrics as Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and End-to-end Delay. Both metrics are also compared to the value obtained from NS-2 simulator versus different number of nodes and four packet generation rates. The results show the obtained values from presented SRN model well matched to the values generated from NS-2 simulator with a considerable lesser execution time. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      11 - A Game Theory Based Dynamic Transmission Opportunity Adjustment in WLANs
      Mahdieh Ghazvini Kamal Jamshidi Naser Movahedinia
      IEEE 802.11e is standardized to enhance real time multimedia applications’ quality of service (QoS). This standard introduces two access mechanisms called Enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) and HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) as well as four Access Categor Full Text
      IEEE 802.11e is standardized to enhance real time multimedia applications’ quality of service (QoS). This standard introduces two access mechanisms called Enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) and HCF Controlled Channel Access (HCCA) as well as four Access Categories (ACs) for different types of applications. Each AC has four adjustable parameters : Arbitrary Inter-Frame Space Number(AIFSN), minimum Size of Contention Window(CWmin), maximum size of Contention Window (CWmax), and TXOP_limit. A TXOP_limit (TXOP) is time interval, in which a wireless station can transmit a number of frames consecutively, without releasing the channel and any further contention with other wireless stations. TXOP improves network throughput as well as service differentiation. Proper TXOP adjustment can lead to better bandwidth utilization and QoS provisioning. This paper studies the determination of TXOP in EDCA mode of IEEE 802.11e using a game theory based approach called GDTXOP. Based on GDTXOP, each wireless node chooses its appropriate TXOP according to its queue length and media access delay. OPNET simulator simulated the proposed method and its accuracy is evaluated and verified. The results of the simulation indicate that tuning TXOP appropriately improves both channel utilization for all levels of traffic priority and fairness. This improvement does not impair the quality of high-priority traffics. The proposed approach improves channel utilization, while preserving fairness and efficiency in WLANs and minimizing selfishness behaviours of stations in a distributed environment. Simulation results show the proposed method improves fairness while not disrupting the quality of service. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      12 - Balancing Agility and Stability of Wireless Link Quality Estimators
      MohammadJavad Tanakian Mehri Mehrjoo
      The performance of many wireless protocols is tied to a quick Link Quality Estimation (LQE). However, some wireless applications need the estimation to respond quickly only to the persistent changes and ignore the transient changes of the channel, i.e., be agile and sta Full Text
      The performance of many wireless protocols is tied to a quick Link Quality Estimation (LQE). However, some wireless applications need the estimation to respond quickly only to the persistent changes and ignore the transient changes of the channel, i.e., be agile and stable, respectively. In this paper, we propose an adaptive fuzzy filter to balance the stability and agility of LQE by mitigating the transient variation of it. The heart of the fuzzy filter is an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) low-pass filter that its smoothing factor is changed dynamically with fuzzy rules. We apply the adaptive fuzzy filter and a non-adaptive one, i.e., an EWMA with a constant smoothing factor, to several types of channels from short-term to long-term transitive channels. The comparison of the filters outputs shows that the non-adaptive filter is stable for large values of the smoothing factor and is agile for small values of smoothing factor, while the proposed adaptive filter outperforms the other ones in terms of balancing the agility and stability measured by the settling time and coefficient of variation, respectively. Notably, the proposed adaptive fuzzy filter performs in real time and its complexity is low, because of using limited number of fuzzy rules and membership functions. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      13 - Cooperative Game Approach for Mobile Primary User Localization Based on Compressive Sensing in Multi-antenna Cognitive Sensor Networks
      maryam najimi
      In this paper, the problem of joint energy efficient spectrum sensing and determining the mobile primary user location is proposed based on compressive sensing in cognitive sensor networks. By utilizing compressive sensing, the ratio of measurements for the sensing node Full Text
      In this paper, the problem of joint energy efficient spectrum sensing and determining the mobile primary user location is proposed based on compressive sensing in cognitive sensor networks. By utilizing compressive sensing, the ratio of measurements for the sensing nodes are considerably reduced. Therefore, energy consumption is improved significantly in spectrum sensing. The multi-antenna sensors is also considered to save more energy. On the other hand, multi-antenna sensor utilization is a proper solution instead of applying more sensors. The problem is formulated to maximize the network lifetime and find the mobile primary user position by sensors selection under the detection performance and accuracy of localization constraints. For this purpose, a cooperative game is proposed to study this problem. It is shown that with the proposed game, the network lifetime is maximized while the proper sensors which participate in spectrum sensing and primary user localization are determined. Simulation results show that the network lifetime is improved while the detection performance constraint is satisfied and the location of the primary user is determined with high accuracy. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      14 - Complexity Reduction in Massive-MIMO-NOMA SIC Receiver in Presence of Imperfect CSI
      Nilufar Tutunchi Afrooz Haghbin Behrad Mahboobi
      One of the main reasons for switching to the next generation of communication systems is the demand of increasing capacity and network connections. This goal can be achieved using massive multiple input - multiple output (massive-MIMO) systems in combination with Non-or Full Text
      One of the main reasons for switching to the next generation of communication systems is the demand of increasing capacity and network connections. This goal can be achieved using massive multiple input - multiple output (massive-MIMO) systems in combination with Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique. NOMA technology uses the successive interference cancellation (SIC) receiver to detect user’s signals which imposes an additional complexity on the system. In this paper, we proposed two methods to reduce the system complexity. The proposed method despite imperfect channel state information (CSI) in the receiver, there is not significantly reduction in the system performance. Since the computation of matrices inverse has a high computational complexity, we used the Neumann series approximation method and the Gauss-Seidel decomposition method to compute matrices inverse in the SIC receiver. Simulation results are provided at the end of the paper in terms of bit error rate (BER) at the receiver which show, these methods have lower computational complexity in comparison with the traditional methods while they cause a slight performance reduction in the SIC receiver. Also, we examined the increasing and decreasing value of imperfect channel state information in the system performance which shows the increasing value of imperfect channel state information, cause a slight performance reduction in SIC receiver. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      15 - Using Residual Design for Key Management in Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
      Vahid Modiri Hamid Haj Seyyed Javadi Amir Masoud  Rahmani Mohaddese Anzani
      Combinatorial designs are powerful structures for key management in wireless sensor networks to address good connectivity and also security against external attacks in large scale networks. Many researchers have used key pre-distribution schemes using combinatorial stru Full Text
      Combinatorial designs are powerful structures for key management in wireless sensor networks to address good connectivity and also security against external attacks in large scale networks. Many researchers have used key pre-distribution schemes using combinatorial structures in which key-rings, are pre-distributed to each sensor node before deployment in a real environment. Regarding the restricted resources, key distribution is a great engagement and challenging issue in providing sufficient security in wireless sensor networks. To provide secure communication, a unique key should be found from their stored key-rings. Most of the key pre-distribution protocols based on public-key mechanisms could not support highly scalable networks due to their key storage overhead and communication cost that linearly increasing. In this paper, we introduce a new key distribution approach for hierarchical clustered wireless sensor networks. Each cluster has a construction that contains new points or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas of their head clusters. Based on Residual Design as a powerful algebraic combinatorial architecture and hierarchical network model, our approach guarantees good connectivity between sensor nodes and also cluster heads. Compared with similar existing schemes, our approach can provide sufficient security no matter if the cluster head or normal sensor node is compromised Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      16 - Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
      Maryam Bavaghar Amin Mohajer Sarah Taghavi Motlagh
      In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are usually deployed with limited energy reserves in remote environments for a long period of time with less or no human intervention. It makes energy efficiency as a challenging issue both for the design and deployment o Full Text
      In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are usually deployed with limited energy reserves in remote environments for a long period of time with less or no human intervention. It makes energy efficiency as a challenging issue both for the design and deployment of sensor networks. This paper presents a novel approach named Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm (EECA) for Wireless Sensor Networks which is based on two phases clustering model and provides maximum network coverage in an energy efficient way. In this framework, an effective resource-aware load balancing approach applied for autonomous methods of configuring the parameters in accordance with the signaling patterns in which approximately the same bit rate data is provided for each sensor. This resource-efficient clustering model can also form energy balanced clusters which results in increasing network life time and ensuring better network coverage. Simulation results prove that EECA is better than LEACH, LEA2C and EECS with respect to network lifetime and at the same time achieving more network coverage. In addition to obtained an optimal cluster size with minimum energy loss, the proposed approach also suggests new and better way for selecting cluster heads to reduce energy consumption of the distributed nodes resulting in increased operational reliability of sensor networks. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      17 - A Fast Machine Learning for 5G Beam Selection for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Applications
      Wasswa Shafik Mohammad Ghasemzadeh S.Mojtaba Matinkhah
      Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) emerged into a promising research trend applied in several disciplines based on the benefits, including efficient communication, on-time search, and rescue operations, appreciate customer deliveries among more. The current technologies ar Full Text
      Unmanned Aerial vehicles (UAVs) emerged into a promising research trend applied in several disciplines based on the benefits, including efficient communication, on-time search, and rescue operations, appreciate customer deliveries among more. The current technologies are using fixed base stations (BS) to operate onsite and off-site in the fixed position with its associated problems like poor connectivity. These open gates for the UAVs technology to be used as a mobile alternative to increase accessibility in beam selection with a fifth-generation (5G) connectivity that focuses on increased availability and connectivity. This paper presents a first fast semi-online 3-Dimensional machine learning algorithm suitable for proper beam selection as is emitted from UAVs. Secondly, it presents a detailed step by step approach that is involved in the multi-armed bandit approach in solving UAV solving selection exploration to exploitation dilemmas. The obtained results depicted that a multi-armed bandit problem approach can be applied in optimizing the performance of any mobile networked devices issue based on bandit samples like Thompson sampling, Bayesian algorithm, and ε-Greedy Algorithm. The results further illustrated that the 3-Dimensional algorithm optimizes utilization of technological resources compared to the existing single and the 2-Dimensional algorithms thus close optimal performance on the average period through machine learning of realistic UAV communication situations. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      18 - Low-Complexity Iterative Detection for Uplink Multiuser Large-Scale MIMO
      Mojtaba Amiri Mahmoud Ferdosizade Naeiny
      In massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) or large scale MIMO systems, uplink detection at the Base Station (BS) is a challenging problem due to significant increase of the dimensions in comparison to ordinary MIMO systems. In this letter, a novel iterative metho Full Text
      In massive Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) or large scale MIMO systems, uplink detection at the Base Station (BS) is a challenging problem due to significant increase of the dimensions in comparison to ordinary MIMO systems. In this letter, a novel iterative method is proposed for detection of the transmitted symbols in uplink multiuser massive MIMO systems. Linear detection algorithms such as minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE) and zero-forcing (ZF), are able to achieve the performance of the near optimal detector, when the number of base station (BS) antennas is enough high. But the complexity of linear detectors in Massive MIMO systems is high due to the necessity of the calculation of the inverse of a large dimension matrix. In this paper, we address the problem of reducing the complexity of the MMSE detector for massive MIMO systems. The proposed method is based on Gram Schmidt algorithm, which improves the convergence speed and also provides better error rate than the alternative methods. It will be shown that the complexity order is reduced from O(〖n_t〗^3) to O(〖n_t〗^2), where n_t is the number of users. The proposed method avoids the direct computation of matrix inversion. Simulation results show that the proposed method improves the convergence speed and also it achieves the performance of MMSE detector with considerable lower computational complexity. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      19 - Energy Efficient Cross Layer MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks in Remote Area Monitoring Applications
      R Rathna L Mary Gladence J Sybi Cynthia V Maria Anu
      Sensor nodes are typically less mobile, much limited in capabilities, and more densely deployed than the traditional wired networks as well as mobile ad-hoc networks. General Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are designed with electro-mechanical sensors through wireless d Full Text
      Sensor nodes are typically less mobile, much limited in capabilities, and more densely deployed than the traditional wired networks as well as mobile ad-hoc networks. General Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are designed with electro-mechanical sensors through wireless data communication. Nowadays the WSN has become ubiquitous. WSN is used in combination with Internet of Things and in many Big Data applications, it is used in the lower layer for data collection. It is deployed in combination with several high end networks. All the higher layer networks and application layer services depend on the low level WSN in the deployment site. So to achieve energy efficiency in the overall network some simplification strategies have to be carried out not only in the Medium Access Control (MAC) layer but also in the network and transport layers. An energy efficient algorithm for scheduling and clustering is proposed and described in detail. The proposed methodology clusters the nodes using a traditional yet simplified approach of hierarchically sorting the sensor nodes. Few important works on cross layer protocols for WSNs are reviewed and an attempt to modify their pattern has also been presented in this paper with results. Comparison with few prominent protocols in this domain has also been made. As a result of the comparison one would get a basic idea of using which type of scheduling algorithm for which type of monitoring applications. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      20 - Confronting DDoS Attacks in Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Networks based on Evidence Theory
      Nazbanoo Farzaneh Reyhaneh Hoseini
      DDoS attacks aim at making the authorized users unable to access the network resources. In the present paper, an evidence theory based security method has been proposed to confront DDoS attacks in software-defined wireless sensor networks. The security model, as a secur Full Text
      DDoS attacks aim at making the authorized users unable to access the network resources. In the present paper, an evidence theory based security method has been proposed to confront DDoS attacks in software-defined wireless sensor networks. The security model, as a security unit, is placed on the control plane of the software-defined wireless sensor network aiming at detecting the suspicious traffic. The main purpose of this paper is detection of the DDoS attack using the central controller of the software-defined network and entropy approach as an effective light-weight and quick solution in the early stages of the detection and, also, Dempster-Shafer theory in order to do a more exact detection with longer time. Evaluation of the attacks including integration of data from the evidence obtained using Dempster-Shafer and entropy modules has been done with the purpose of increasing the rate of detection of the DDoS attack, maximizing the true positive, decreasing the false negative, and confronting the attack. The results of the paper show that providing a security unit on the control plane in a software-defined wireless sensor network is an efficient method for detecting and evaluating the probability of DDoS attacks and increasing the rate of detection of an attacker. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      21 - Sailor Localization in Oceans Beds using Genetic and Firefly Algorithm
      Shruti  Gupta Dr Ajay  Rana Dr Vineet  Kansal
      The Localization is the core element in Wireless Sensor Network WSN, especially for those nodes without GPS or BDS; leaning towards improvement, based on its effective and increased use in the past decade. Localization methods are thus very important for estimating the Full Text
      The Localization is the core element in Wireless Sensor Network WSN, especially for those nodes without GPS or BDS; leaning towards improvement, based on its effective and increased use in the past decade. Localization methods are thus very important for estimating the position of relative nodes in the network allowing a better and effective network for increasing the efficiency and thus increasing the lifeline of the network. Determining the current limitations in FA that are applied for solving different optimization problems is poor exploitation capability when the randomization factor is taken large during firefly changing position. This poor exploitation may lead to skip the most optimal solution even present in the vicinity of the current solution which results in poor local convergence rate that ultimately degrades the solution quality. This paper presents GEFIR (GenFire) algorithm to calculate position of unknown nodes for the fishermen in the ocean. The proposed approach calculates the position of unknown nodes, the proposed method effectively selects the anchor node in the cluster head to reduce the energy dissipation. Major benefits over other similar localization algorithms are a better positioning of nodes is provided and average localization error is reduced which eventually leads to better efficiency thus optimize the lifetime of the network for sailors. The obtained results depict that the proposed model surpasses the previous generation of localization algorithm in terms of energy dispersion and location estimation which is suitable for fishermen on the ocean bed. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      22 - A New Game Theory-Based Algorithm for Target Coverage in Directional Sensor Networks
      Elham Golrasan marzieh varposhti
      One of the challenging problems in directional sensor networks is maximizing target coverage while minimizing the amount of energy consumption. Considering the high redundancy in dense directional sensor networks, it is possible to preserve energy and enhance coverage q Full Text
      One of the challenging problems in directional sensor networks is maximizing target coverage while minimizing the amount of energy consumption. Considering the high redundancy in dense directional sensor networks, it is possible to preserve energy and enhance coverage quality by turning off redundant sensors and adjusting the direction of the active sensor nodes. In this paper, we address the problem of maximizing network lifetime with adjustable ranges (MNLAR) and propose a new game theory-based algorithm in which sensor nodes try to adjust their working direction and sensing range in a distributed manner to achieve the desired coverage. For this purpose, we formulate this problem as a multiplayer repeated game in which each sensor as a player tries to maximize its utility function which is designed to capture the tradeoff between target coverage and energy consumption. To achieve an efficient action profile, we present a distributed payoff-based learning algorithm. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated via simulations and compared to some existing methods. The simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm and its superiority over previous approaches in terms of network lifetime. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      23 - Energy Efficient Routing-Based Clustering Protocol Using Computational Intelligence Algorithms in Sensor-Based IoT
      Mohammad sedighimanesh Hessam  Zandhessami Mahmood  Alborzi Mohammadsadegh  Khayyatian
      Background: The main limitation of wireless IoT sensor-based networks is their energy resource, which cannot be charged or replaced because, in most applications, these sensors are usually applied in places where they are not accessible or rechargeable. Objective: The p Full Text
      Background: The main limitation of wireless IoT sensor-based networks is their energy resource, which cannot be charged or replaced because, in most applications, these sensors are usually applied in places where they are not accessible or rechargeable. Objective: The present article's main objective is to assist in improving energy consumption in the sensor-based IoT network and thus increase the network’s lifetime. Cluster heads are used to send data to the base station. Methods: In the present paper, the type-1 fuzzy algorithm is employed to select cluster heads, and the type-2 fuzzy algorithm is used for routing between cluster heads to the base station. After selecting the cluster head using the type-1 fuzzy algorithm, the normal nodes become the members of the cluster heads and send their data to the cluster head, and then the cluster heads transfer the collected data to the main station through the path which has been determined by the type-2 fuzzy algorithm. Results: The proposed algorithm was implemented using MATLAB simulator and compared with LEACH, DEC, and DEEC protocols. The simulation results suggest that the proposed protocol among the mentioned algorithms increases the network’s lifetime in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments. Conclusion: Due to the energy limitation in sensor-based IoT networks and the impossibility of recharging the sensors in most applications, the use of computational intelligence techniques in the design and implementation of these algorithms considerably contributes to the reduction of energy consumption and ultimately the increase in network’s lifetime. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      24 - Cluster-based Coverage Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks using Learning Automata
      Ali Ghaffari Seyyed Keyvan  Mousavi
      Network coverage is one of the most important challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In a WSN, each sensor node has a sensing area coverage based on its sensing range. In most applications, sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the environment which causes the d Full Text
      Network coverage is one of the most important challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In a WSN, each sensor node has a sensing area coverage based on its sensing range. In most applications, sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the environment which causes the density of nodes become high in some areas and low in some other. In this case, some areas are not covered by none of sensor nodes which these areas are called coverage holes. Also, creating areas with high density leads to redundant overlapping and as a result the network lifetime decreases. In this paper, a cluster-based scheme for the coverage problem of WSNs using learning automata is proposed. In the proposed scheme, each node creates the action and probability vectors of learning automata for itself and its neighbors, then determines the status of itself and all its neighbors and finally sends them to the cluster head (CH). Afterward, each CH starts to reward or penalize the vectors and sends the results to the sender for updating purposes. Thereafter, among the sent vectors, the CH node selects the best action vector and broadcasts it in the form of a message inside the cluster. Finally, each member changes its status in accordance with the vector included in the received message from the corresponding CH and the active sensor nodes perform environment monitoring operations. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the network coverage and the energy consumption. Manuscript Document
    • Open Access Article

      25 - An Approach to Improve the Quality of Service in DTN and Non-DTN based VANET
      Ahmad Sarlak Yousef Darmani
      Nowadays, with attention to soar in the number of network users, it is necessary to find new approaches to revolutionize network operation. Vehicular ad-hoc networks are bound to play a pivotal role in communication, therefore raising the traffic in the network, using o Full Text
      Nowadays, with attention to soar in the number of network users, it is necessary to find new approaches to revolutionize network operation. Vehicular ad-hoc networks are bound to play a pivotal role in communication, therefore raising the traffic in the network, using only WiFi is unlikely to address this problem. Vehicles could use SDN and other networks such as 4G as well as 5G to distribute traffic to different networks. Moreover, many approaches for handling different data types are inappropriate due to the lack of attention to the data separation idea. In this paper, we proposed a control scheme called Improve Quality of Service in DTN and Non-DTN (IQDN) which works based on vehicle communication infrastructure using SDN idea. IQDN separates data to Delay-Tolerant Data (DTD), and Delay-Intolerant Data (DID) where the former buffers in a vehicle till the vehicle enters an RSU range and sends DTD using IEEE 802.11p. DID packets are sent by cellular networks and LTE. To transmit DTD via IEEE 802.11p, the network capacity is evaluated by SDN. If that network has room to transmit the data, SDN sends a control message to inform the vehicle. Simulations show that sending data over RSU and LTE increases the throughput and decreases the congestion, so the quality of service improves. Manuscript Document