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        1 - Coverage Improving with Energy Efficient in Wireless Sensor Networks
        Amir Pakmehr Ali Ghaffari
        Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by numerous sensors nodes that are able to sense different environmental phenomena and to transfer the collected data to the sink. The coverage of a network is one of the main discussion and one of the parameters of service qua More
        Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are formed by numerous sensors nodes that are able to sense different environmental phenomena and to transfer the collected data to the sink. The coverage of a network is one of the main discussion and one of the parameters of service quality in WSNs. In most of the applications, the sensor nodes are scattered in the environment randomly that causes the density of the nodes to be high in some regions and low in some other regions. In this case, some regions are not covered with any nodes of the network that are called covering holes. Moreover, creating some regions with high density causes extra overlapping and consequently the consumption of energy increases in the network and life of the network decreases. The proposed approach causes an increase in life of the network and an increase in it through careful selection of the most appropriate approach as cluster head node and form clusters with a maximum length of two steps and selecting some nodes as redundancy nodes in order to cover the created holes in the network. The proposed scheme is simulated using MATLAB software. The function of the suggested approach will be compared with Learning Automata based Energy Efficient Coverage protocol (LAEEC) approach either. Simulation results shows that the function of the suggested approach is better than LAEEC considering the parameters such as average of the active nodes, average remaining energy in nodes, percent of network coverage and number of control packets. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Data Aggregation Tree Structure in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Cuckoo Optimization Algorithm
        Elham Mohsenifard بهنام طالبی
        Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of numerous tiny sensors which can be regarded as a robust tool for collecting and aggregating data in different data environments. The energy of these small sensors is supplied by a battery with limited power which cannot be rech More
        Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consist of numerous tiny sensors which can be regarded as a robust tool for collecting and aggregating data in different data environments. The energy of these small sensors is supplied by a battery with limited power which cannot be recharged. Certain approaches are needed so that the power of the sensors can be efficiently and optimally utilized. One of the notable approaches for reducing energy consumption in WSNs is to decrease the number of packets to be transmitted in the network. Using data aggregation method, the mass of data which should be transmitted can be remarkably reduced. One of the related methods in this approach is the data aggregation tree. However, it should be noted that finding the optimization tree for data aggregation in networks with one working-station is an NP-Hard problem. In this paper, using cuckoo optimization algorithm (COA), a data aggregation tree was proposed which can optimize energy consumption in the network. The proposed method in this study was compared with genetic algorithm (GA), Power Efficient Data gathering and Aggregation Protocol- Power Aware (PEDAPPA) and energy efficient spanning tree (EESR). The results of simulations which were conducted in matlab indicated that the proposed method had better performance than GA, PEDAPPA and EESR algorithm in terms of energy consumption. Consequently, the proposed method was able to enhance network lifetime. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        3 - Using Residual Design for Key Management in Hierarchical Wireless Sensor Networks
        Vahid Modiri Hamid Haj Seyyed Javadi Amir Masoud  Rahmani Mohaddese Anzani
        Combinatorial designs are powerful structures for key management in wireless sensor networks to address good connectivity and also security against external attacks in large scale networks. Many researchers have used key pre-distribution schemes using combinatorial stru More
        Combinatorial designs are powerful structures for key management in wireless sensor networks to address good connectivity and also security against external attacks in large scale networks. Many researchers have used key pre-distribution schemes using combinatorial structures in which key-rings, are pre-distributed to each sensor node before deployment in a real environment. Regarding the restricted resources, key distribution is a great engagement and challenging issue in providing sufficient security in wireless sensor networks. To provide secure communication, a unique key should be found from their stored key-rings. Most of the key pre-distribution protocols based on public-key mechanisms could not support highly scalable networks due to their key storage overhead and communication cost that linearly increasing. In this paper, we introduce a new key distribution approach for hierarchical clustered wireless sensor networks. Each cluster has a construction that contains new points or that reinforces and builds upon similar ideas of their head clusters. Based on Residual Design as a powerful algebraic combinatorial architecture and hierarchical network model, our approach guarantees good connectivity between sensor nodes and also cluster heads. Compared with similar existing schemes, our approach can provide sufficient security no matter if the cluster head or normal sensor node is compromised Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        4 - Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks
        Maryam Bavaghar Amin Mohajer Sarah Taghavi Motlagh
        In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are usually deployed with limited energy reserves in remote environments for a long period of time with less or no human intervention. It makes energy efficiency as a challenging issue both for the design and deployment o More
        In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor nodes are usually deployed with limited energy reserves in remote environments for a long period of time with less or no human intervention. It makes energy efficiency as a challenging issue both for the design and deployment of sensor networks. This paper presents a novel approach named Energy Efficient Clustering Algorithm (EECA) for Wireless Sensor Networks which is based on two phases clustering model and provides maximum network coverage in an energy efficient way. In this framework, an effective resource-aware load balancing approach applied for autonomous methods of configuring the parameters in accordance with the signaling patterns in which approximately the same bit rate data is provided for each sensor. This resource-efficient clustering model can also form energy balanced clusters which results in increasing network life time and ensuring better network coverage. Simulation results prove that EECA is better than LEACH, LEA2C and EECS with respect to network lifetime and at the same time achieving more network coverage. In addition to obtained an optimal cluster size with minimum energy loss, the proposed approach also suggests new and better way for selecting cluster heads to reduce energy consumption of the distributed nodes resulting in increased operational reliability of sensor networks. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        5 - Confronting DDoS Attacks in Software-Defined Wireless Sensor Networks based on Evidence Theory
        Nazbanoo Farzaneh Reyhaneh Hoseini
        DDoS attacks aim at making the authorized users unable to access the network resources. In the present paper, an evidence theory based security method has been proposed to confront DDoS attacks in software-defined wireless sensor networks. The security model, as a secur More
        DDoS attacks aim at making the authorized users unable to access the network resources. In the present paper, an evidence theory based security method has been proposed to confront DDoS attacks in software-defined wireless sensor networks. The security model, as a security unit, is placed on the control plane of the software-defined wireless sensor network aiming at detecting the suspicious traffic. The main purpose of this paper is detection of the DDoS attack using the central controller of the software-defined network and entropy approach as an effective light-weight and quick solution in the early stages of the detection and, also, Dempster-Shafer theory in order to do a more exact detection with longer time. Evaluation of the attacks including integration of data from the evidence obtained using Dempster-Shafer and entropy modules has been done with the purpose of increasing the rate of detection of the DDoS attack, maximizing the true positive, decreasing the false negative, and confronting the attack. The results of the paper show that providing a security unit on the control plane in a software-defined wireless sensor network is an efficient method for detecting and evaluating the probability of DDoS attacks and increasing the rate of detection of an attacker. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        6 - Cluster-based Coverage Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks using Learning Automata
        Ali Ghaffari Seyyed Keyvan  Mousavi
        Network coverage is one of the most important challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In a WSN, each sensor node has a sensing area coverage based on its sensing range. In most applications, sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the environment which causes the d More
        Network coverage is one of the most important challenges in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In a WSN, each sensor node has a sensing area coverage based on its sensing range. In most applications, sensor nodes are randomly deployed in the environment which causes the density of nodes become high in some areas and low in some other. In this case, some areas are not covered by none of sensor nodes which these areas are called coverage holes. Also, creating areas with high density leads to redundant overlapping and as a result the network lifetime decreases. In this paper, a cluster-based scheme for the coverage problem of WSNs using learning automata is proposed. In the proposed scheme, each node creates the action and probability vectors of learning automata for itself and its neighbors, then determines the status of itself and all its neighbors and finally sends them to the cluster head (CH). Afterward, each CH starts to reward or penalize the vectors and sends the results to the sender for updating purposes. Thereafter, among the sent vectors, the CH node selects the best action vector and broadcasts it in the form of a message inside the cluster. Finally, each member changes its status in accordance with the vector included in the received message from the corresponding CH and the active sensor nodes perform environment monitoring operations. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the network coverage and the energy consumption. Manuscript profile
      • Open Access Article

        7 - Secure Key Management Scheme for Hierarchical Network Using Combinatorial Design
        Siddiq Iqbal B R  Sujatha
        The wireless sensor network (WSN) signifies to a gathering of spatially spread and committed sensors for observing and logging the physical states of the environment and for organizing the information gathered at the central Base station. Many security threats may affec More
        The wireless sensor network (WSN) signifies to a gathering of spatially spread and committed sensors for observing and logging the physical states of the environment and for organizing the information gathered at the central Base station. Many security threats may affect the functioning of these networks. Security of the data in the system depends on the cryptographic procedure and the methods where encryption and decryption keys are developed among the sensors. Symmetric key foundation is one of the best applicable ideal models for safe exchanges in WSNs. The main goal is to improve and evaluate certain issues, such as node attack, to provide better key strength, connectivity, security for node interaction, and throughput. Uniform Balanced Incomplete Block Design (UBIBD) is used to generate the keys allocated by the base station to the cluster head. The cluster head distributes keys to its members using Symmetric Balanced Incomplete Block Design (SBIBD), and the keys are refreshed on a regular basis to avoid out-of-date entries. In wireless sensor networks, compromised nodes can be used to inject false reports. The concept of interacting between sensor nodes using keys and establishing a secure connection aids in ensuring the network's security. Manuscript profile