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        1 - Density Measure in Context Clustering for Distributional Semantics of Word Sense Induction
        Masood Ghayoomi
        Word Sense Induction (WSI) aims at inducing word senses from data without using a prior knowledge. Utilizing no labeled data motivated researchers to use clustering techniques for this task. There exist two types of clustering algorithm: parametric or non-parametric. Al Full Text
        Word Sense Induction (WSI) aims at inducing word senses from data without using a prior knowledge. Utilizing no labeled data motivated researchers to use clustering techniques for this task. There exist two types of clustering algorithm: parametric or non-parametric. Although non-parametric clustering algorithms are more suitable for inducing word senses, their shortcomings make them useless. Meanwhile, parametric clustering algorithms show competitive results, but they suffer from a major problem that is requiring to set a predefined fixed number of clusters in advance. Word Sense Induction (WSI) aims at inducing word senses from data without using a prior knowledge. Utilizing no labeled data motivated researchers to use clustering techniques for this task. There exist two types of clustering algorithm: parametric or non-parametric. Although non-parametric clustering algorithms are more suitable for inducing word senses, their shortcomings make them useless. Meanwhile, parametric clustering algorithms show competitive results, but they suffer from a major problem that is requiring to set a predefined fixed number of clusters in advance. The main contribution of this paper is to show that utilizing the silhouette score normally used as an internal evaluation metric to measure the clusters’ density in a parametric clustering algorithm, such as K-means, in the WSI task captures words’ senses better than the state-of-the-art models. To this end, word embedding approach is utilized to represent words’ contextual information as vectors. To capture the context in the vectors, we propose two modes of experiments: either using the whole sentence, or limited number of surrounding words in the local context of the target word to build the vectors. The experimental results based on V-measure evaluation metric show that the two modes of our proposed model beat the state-of-the-art models by 4.48% and 5.39% improvement. Moreover, the average number of clusters and the maximum number of clusters in the outputs of our proposed models are relatively equal to the gold data Manuscript Document
      • Open Access Article

        2 - Word Sense Induction in Persian and English: A Comparative Study
        Masood Ghayoomi
        Words in the natural language have forms and meanings, and there might not always be a one-to-one match between them. This property of the language causes words to have more than one meaning; as a result, a text processing system faces challenges to determine the precis Full Text
        Words in the natural language have forms and meanings, and there might not always be a one-to-one match between them. This property of the language causes words to have more than one meaning; as a result, a text processing system faces challenges to determine the precise meaning of the target word in a sentence. Using lexical resources or lexical databases, such as WordNet, might be a help, but due to their manual development, they become outdated by passage of time and language change. Moreover, the lexical resources might be domain dependent which are unusable for open domain natural language processing tasks. These drawbacks are a strong motivation to use unsupervised machine learning approaches to induce word senses from the natural data. To reach the goal, the clustering approach can be utilized such that each cluster resembles a sense. In this paper, we study the performance of a word sense induction model by using three variables: a) the target language: in our experiments, we run the induction process on Persian and English; b) the type of the clustering algorithm: both parametric clustering algorithms, including hierarchical and partitioning, and non-parametric clustering algorithms, including probabilistic and density-based, are utilized to induce senses; c) the context of the target words to capture the information in vectors created for clustering: for the input of the clustering algorithms, the vectors are created either based on the whole sentence in which the target word is located; or based on the limited surrounding words of the target word. We evaluate the clustering performance externally. Moreover, we introduce a normalized, joint evaluation metric to compare the models. The experimental results for both Persian and English test data showed that the window-based partitioningK-means algorithm obtained the best performance. Manuscript Document